Two Houses in Calçada Dos Mestres / Organica, Arquitectura

first_img 2018 ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/910804/two-houses-in-calcada-dos-mestres-organica-arquitectura Clipboard CopyHouses, Refurbishment•Lisboa, Portugal Portugal Two Houses in Calçada Dos Mestres / Organica, Arquitectura Photographs “COPY” Lead Architect: Save this picture!© Do Mal o Menos+ 42Curated by Matheus Pereira Share ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/910804/two-houses-in-calcada-dos-mestres-organica-arquitectura Clipboard Houses “COPY” Paulo Serôdio Lopes ArchDaily Two Houses in Calçada Dos Mestres / Organica, ArquitecturaSave this projectSaveTwo Houses in Calçada Dos Mestres / Organica, Arquitectura Projects Manufacturers: CS Telhas, Cortizo, Revigres, Weber, Sotecnisol Collaboration:José Roque, Gary Barber, José Santos, Carlos Paulo, Ruben Lourenço, Vitor Sá, João CordeiroStructure, Waters, Sewers And Gas Csap:Cristina PimentaElectricity Ited, Thermal:Sala de DesenhoEngineering:Rui MartinsCity:LisboaCountry:PortugalMore SpecsLess SpecsText description provided by the architects. Orgânica architecture office has just completed the rehabilitation of two semi-detached houses in Calçada dos Mestres neighborhood, facing ‘Águas Livres’, Lisbon 18th century aqueduct. The original neighborhood was a social development of mid twentieth century. These streets have no name, their names are still merely numerical.Save this picture!© Do Mal o MenosRecommended ProductsWood Boards / HPL PanelsLamitechLamitech high pressure plastic laminateWoodLunawoodThermowood FacadesSkylightsLibartSolaGlide Inclined Retractable SkylightWoodParklex International S.L.Wood cladding – FacadeThe semi-detached houses, located on Rua Um (Nº1 street) face the “Águas Livres” aqueduct, an engineering stone achievement that splits the neighborhood in two, towards the Alcântara valley.Save this picture!© Do Mal o MenosThis Orgânica project renewed and enlarged the existing building, gave the semi-detached houses a new organization, as urban modern living requires.Save this picture!© Do Mal o MenosSave this picture!Section 01But not only the interior had significant changes. From the interior windows were opened from floor to ceiling, by inflecting the walls, allowing us to look out on multiple directions. These new openings are strategic, allow us to capture frames and relevant landscape references, extend the houses inner space.It is possible to distinguish that we are in presence of two independent houses only by the colors of the entrance doors and it’s window flower boxes.Save this picture!© Do Mal o MenosThe project involved a partial demolition, preserving it’s main facade. Now, with a more refined and contemporary design, the houses have the same windows, the same flower boxes and entrance porch but with a more meaningfull expression. The outer walls were plastered and painted white, and the concrete floor slabs were marked in gray. The roof gained new red flat tiles, a typical construction material of Lisbon area.Save this picture!© Do Mal o MenosEntrance hall and social areas are located on the ground floor. The entrance hall works as a vestibule from which we access the kitchen area, the living room and the staircase. The living room has big windows from floor to ceiling and an external staircase as a backyard connection.Save this picture!© Do Mal o MenosOn the first floor we find the semi-detached houses private areas, with bedrooms in the side elevations. There’s also an attic and a basement. In total, the houses have approximately 600m2.Project gallerySee allShow lessStudio Gang to Lead Winning Chicago O’Hare Airport ExpansionArchitecture NewsSerpentine Bans Use of Unpaid Interns for 2019 Pavilion Design TeamArchitecture News Share Photographs:  Do Mal o Menos Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Area:  600 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Architects: Organica, Arquitectura Area Area of this architecture project Year:  CopyAbout this officeOrgânica ArquitecturaOfficeFollowProductConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesRefurbishmentResidential ArchitectureLisbonPortugalPublished on March 28, 2019Cite: “Two Houses in Calçada Dos Mestres / Organica, Arquitectura” [Duas casas na Calçada dos Mestres / Orgânica Arquitectura] 28 Mar 2019. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesTechnowoodPanel Façade SystemRailing / BalustradesMitrexIntegrated Photovoltaic Railing – BIPV RailingMetal PanelsAurubisCopper Alloy: Nordic BrassHanging LampsVibiaHanging Lamp – VOLConcreteKrytonCrystalline Waterproofing – KIMSkylightsLAMILUXGlass Skylight FE PassivhausPorcelain StonewareCosentinoSurfaces – Dekton® Chromica CollectionBricksFeldhaus KlinkerThin Bricks – ClassicGlassDip-TechDigital Ceramic Printing for Interior DesignWoodStructureCraftEngineering – FootbridgesAluminium CompositesCymat Technologies Ltd.Bundang Doosan Tower – Alusion™ Stabilized Aluminum FoamTable LampsRoss GardamDesk Lamp – OraMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! 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Record numbers raise money to build homes

first_img Howard Lake | 24 November 2008 | News AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Tagged with: Ireland Volunteering  26 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Two thousand Irish volunteers having raised €1 million will set off for South Africa this week for the now annual effort to build homes for people living in poverty in the townships of Cape Town.The volunteers with the Niall Mellon Township Trust aim to complete over 250 houses in the course of their one week ‘building blitz’, providing homes for over 3,000 people in the Cape Town area.Property developer and founder of the trust, Niall Mellon, said the sixth annual ‘building blitz’ would be the largest to date. Some 700 of this year’s volunteers have taken part in the project before. The volunteers come from all walks of life, include all ages and come from right across the country. They include skilled trades people and senior executives, nurses, doctors, firemen and even a fisherman, Mr Mellon said. “A large number of our volunteers are from the construction sector. We are deeply humbled that they have worked so hard this year to raise the target of €5,000 each. Many of these people have had a tough year personally, some of them have been let go from their jobs and despite all of this, their determination has shone through and they have worked extra hard to raise the €5000,” Mr Mellon said.Some 5,000 volunteers have worked on the annual building project since its inception in 2002 and the charity has built over 10,000 houses.www.irishtownship.com Record numbers raise money to build homeslast_img read more

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Study Abroad Fair helps students realize dreams

first_imgReddIt Twitter + posts Previous articleStudents learn about suicide prevention with Fresh Check DayNext articlePi Kapp Push Week ends with a song and dance Tobi Carter RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Facebook Tobi Carterhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/tobi-carter/ Tobi Carter Tobi Carterhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/tobi-carter/ ReddIt Fort Worth resident dedicates life to rescuing dogs New literacy initiative rolled out in Fort Worth ISD The College of Science and Engineering Dean, Phil Hartman, retires after 40 consecutive years New bus route eases commute to Denton Facebook TCU places second in the National Student Advertising Competition, the highest in school history Tobi Carterhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/tobi-carter/ Local artist and TCU alum presents new exhibit printExcitement filled the air as students realized their dream of studying abroad could become true.The Study Abroad Fair had 24 programs represented. They also gave away prizes and popcorn.On Oct. 7, the Center for International Studies held their annual fair to provide students with the knowledge they needed to help students study abroad.The fair had 24 programs represented, which included faculty-led and partner programs. The study abroad office offers more than 250 programs.Jesica Severson, the study abroad coordinator, said there are 22 faculty-led programs departing in summer 2016. Three of the programs leaving include Environmental Issues in Costa Rica, South African Biodiversity and Human Development and Exploring Film, TV and Sports in Rome, Italy.The Director of the Institute for Environmental Studies Michael Slattery is one of the faculty members for the trips to Costa Rica and South Africa. Slattery said the trip to Costa Rica focuses on the ecosystems and geology of the rainforest.The South Africa trip, Slattery said, has an emphasis on rhino conservation in areas such as the Amakhala Game Reserve. Students on this trip will also experience South Africa’s rapid population increase by visiting Soweto to understand apartheid and its geopolitical aspects.“These experiences are truly transformative,” Slattery said. “It gives students hands-on experience that doesn’t happen in the classroom.”The FTDM program going to Rome is a chance to take two classes at once, Colin Tait, an assistant professor in the FTDM department, said. The first half of the trip focuses on the sports culture in Rome and the second half of the trip focuses on Rome as a cinematic city.John Sprague, the CIEE representative, helped students with their questions during the fair.The two partner programs offered by TCU are the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE) and the Institute for the International Education of Students (IES). Both programs offer multiple programs to multiple locations.Severson said she was impressed with the amount of participation in this year’s fair.“Everybody is working to send students abroad because they know how important it is,” Severson said. “This is the single, most impactful learning experience a student can have.”The summer study abroad application opens at 9 a.m. on Oct. 8. The deadline is Jan. 15. Twitter Students look at the prizes they can receive after getting five stickers for their passport. Linkedin Tobi Carterhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/tobi-carter/ Linkedin TCU Frog Camps returning to more traditional look this summer Tobi is a senior journalism major from Lewisville, Texas. She works as the downtown Fort Worth multimedia reporter.last_img read more

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Men’s tennis squanders big lead in loss at Columbia

first_imgLinkedin Twitter Branson Nelsonhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/branson-nelson/ A COVID-19 Charles Schwab Challenge TCU places second in the National Student Advertising Competition, the highest in school history Women’s golf heads to Oklahoma for chance at first Big 12 title + posts Branson is a junior journalism major from Fort Worth, Texas. He enjoys writing about all sports and plans to go to law school after graduation. Branson Nelsonhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/branson-nelson/ Twitter Facebook Branson Nelson Iqbal leads women’s golf to fourth-place finish at Big 12 Tournament Branson Nelsonhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/branson-nelson/ Equestrian earns last seed in NCEA team bracket printThe No. 24 Horned Frogs were unable to capitalize on a 3-0 lead against No. 19 Columbia on Sunday, dropping four straight singles-points to lose the match 4-3.“We had a full lineup today and we don’t have any excuses,” TCU head coach David Roditi said. “Some of our guys need to get in better shape and the only blame is on them.”The afternoon opened with TCU taking the doubles point by winning two of the three matches. After seniors Jerry Lopez and Felipe Escobar narrowly lost their match, junior Cameron Norrie and sophomore Reese Stalder defeated No. 30 Shawn Hadavi and Jackie Tang 7-6 (7-0) in a tiebreaker.Junior Guillermo Nunez and sophomore Alex Rybakov clinched the doubles point winning their fifth straight match against Columbia’s No. 14 duo of Christopher Grant and Adam Ambrozy in yet another tiebreaker 7-6 (7-2). TCU went on to win the next two singles matches on courts one and two. No. 35 Norrie defeated No. 39 Hadavi 6-2, 6-1, and Rybakov topped No. 87 Victor Pham 6-3, 6-1.With the match seemingly in hand, the Frogs needed one more win to clinch their first victory against a ranked team this season.After losses by Escobar (6-1, 6-2), Lopez (6-2, 6-4) and No. 80 Nunez (6-3, 3-6, 6-2), the match came down to court five between Stalder and William Matheson. Matheson took set one (6-3), Stalder took set two (6-3), but Matheson won a tiebreaker in set three that wrapped up an incredible comeback by the Lions.TCU is now 3-3 on the season, continuing a very underwhelming start to 2017 after the Frogs had been ranked as high as seventh in early January.Roditi said Sunday’s debacle was unacceptable.“As a coach, it is a lot easier to accept losses when they play well and beat you, but losing because we were out-competed is impossible to accept,” he said.The Horned Frogs will have plenty of time to improve before welcoming the University of Central Florida to Fort Worth on Saturday Feb. 25. Match time is set for 1 p.m. Branson Nelsonhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/branson-nelson/ ReddIt Linkedin Facebook World Oceans Day shines spotlight on marine plastic pollution ReddIt Previous articleCelebrity Dish (Ep. 12 – Grammy’s, Twins and more)Next articleStudents react to Plain White T’s Branson Nelson RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Photo Courtesy of gofrogs.com Welcome TCU Class of 2025last_img read more

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Former walk-on remembered for kind spirit, strong faith

first_imgWorld Oceans Day shines spotlight on marine plastic pollution Benton McDonaldhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/benton-mcdonald/ Twitter Previous articleWhat we’re reading: Trump’s making headlinesNext articleNews Now 9/26/18 Benton McDonald RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Benton McDonaldhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/benton-mcdonald/ printPhil Taylor was 25. Photo Courtesy: Sheri LandA TCU sports broadcasting alumnus and walk-on football player who friends and family remember as devoted to his faith and service died Tuesday. Phil Taylor, 25, was diagnosed with stage four colon cancer in December 2016. Friends said he continued to bring a positive presence into their lives and his family’s.Taylor (second from left) and Craig (far left) have studied and worked together since 2011. Photo courtesy: Geoff Craig“Every time I talked to him he was always positive,” said friend and co-manager of KTCU Geoff Craig. “Even if he was having a bad day, he was smiling, he was always worried about someone else.”Craig and Taylor were classmates and began working in the sports broadcasting department after graduating. Taylor worked in the department up until his death.Craig said Taylor never missed a day of work, even  coming in Tuesdays after receiving chemotherapy Mondays. Taylor’s work ethic and commitment to others highlighted his four years as a walk-on reciever for the Horned Frog football team, friends said. Although he recorded just one career catch, his mark was left on the program. An early version incorrectly stated the school where Phil Taylor was an assistant football coach.  + posts ReddIt Chancellor talks stimulus money, COVID-19 vaccines and more at limited attendance faculty town hall Benton McDonald Board approves tuition freeze, RRI actions but doesn’t act on eligibility issue spurred by Williams Twitter Benton McDonaldhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/benton-mcdonald/ ReddIt Benton McDonaldhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/benton-mcdonald/ Thousands of TCU community members receive COVID-19 vaccines as university supply increases Facebook Facebook “He was always the consummate teammate,” said Craig. “Everybody needs a Phil in their life.”Taylor was an assistant coach at the Prince of Peace Christian School in Carrollton, Texas, until his death. He led the middle school team to a record of 6-3 last fall. Taylor’s strength in the face of a diagnosis that was likely terminal epitomized who he was, said Ashlea Bullington, a fellow TCU sports broadcasting graduate.Taylor during his cancer treatment. Photo courtesy: Phil Taylor“Phil was so full of life,” she said. Both Bullington and Craig spoke about the strength of Taylor’s faith, one that was unwavering in the 22 months since his diagnosis. “This is the hand I’ve been dealt and I’ll be the best me I can be,” Craig said on Taylor’s attitude towards his cancer. “And he did that.”The Mission Viejo, Calif. native, died in his sleep with friends and family at his side. Benton McDonald is a senior journalism and political science double major from Austin, Texas. He has worked for TCU360 since his freshman year and is currently the executive editor. Phil Taylor was 25. Photo Courtesy: TCU Athletics TCU places second in the National Student Advertising Competition, the highest in school history Linkedin Linkedin Welcome TCU Class of 2025 Settlement reached between TCU, former professor in discrimination lawsuitlast_img read more

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Caltech Professor Receives Prestigious Award for Mathematics

first_imgEducation Caltech Professor Receives Prestigious Award for Mathematics By LORI DAJOSE Published on Friday, July 3, 2015 | 11:20 am Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena Herbeauty10 Most Influential Women In HistoryHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyNutritional Strategies To Ease AnxietyHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyIs It Bad To Give Your Boyfriend An Ultimatum?HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty11 Signs Your Perfectionism Has Gotten Out Of ControlHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty6 Lies You Should Stop Telling Yourself Right NowHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty10 Instagram Girls Women Obsess OverHerbeautyHerbeauty Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Make a comment Top of the News Caltech professor of mathematics Nets Katz has received the 2015 Clay Research Award from the Clay Mathematics Institute. The award was given jointly to Katz and his collaborator, MIT professor of mathematics Larry Guth, for their solution of the Erd?s distance problem and for “other joint and separate contributions to combinatorial incidence geometry.”Combinatorial incidence geometry is the study of possible configurations, or arrangements, between geometric objects such as points or lines. One basic open problem in this field is the Erd?s distance problem, for which Katz received the Clay award. The Erd?s distance problem examines a set “large” number of points distributed in various arrangements in a two-dimensional plane. In some configurations, like a lattice or grid, the points are evenly spaced. In others, as in a random distribution of points, the spacing between points is varied. The problem asks how many times the same distance can occur between these points, and what is the minimum number of distinct distances possible between these points.In 2010, Guth and Katz proved that the minimum number of unique distances between n points, regardless of their spatial configuration, is the number of points n divided by the logarithm of n: n/log(n).Katz’s work on the Erd?s problem is an example of his larger research interest in coincidences. By demonstrating that there is a minimum number of unique distances between points, even when in a uniform arrangement like a lattice, Katz showed that coincidences—such as many sets of points having the same distance between them—can occur only a limited number of times.Katz received his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania and was a professor of mathematics at Indiana University Bloomington before joining Caltech’s faculty in 2013. He was named a Guggenheim Fellow in 2012. Previously, his research was in harmonic analysis, a field concerned with representing functions as superpositions of basic oscillating mathematical “waves.”The Clay Mathematics Institute is a private foundation “dedicated to increasing and disseminating mathematical knowledge.” Given annually, the Clay Research Award recognizes contemporary mathematical breakthroughs. First Heatwave Expected Next Week Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  More Cool Stuff Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *center_img faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,PCC – EducationVirtual Schools PasadenaDarrell Done EducationHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyCitizen Service CenterPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Business News 0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Community News Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Subscribe EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Community Newslast_img read more

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Pasadena Student Receives $5,000 Scholarship from Freestone Capital Management

first_img Make a comment EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS 3 recommendedShareShareTweetSharePin it Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. More Cool Stuff Subscribe Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Business News A Pasadena student taking up business administration at the University of Southern California has been selected as one of the five inaugural grantees of the Freestone Future Leaders Scholarships by Freestone Capital Management, a Northwest-based wealth management firm with headquarters in Seattle, Washington.John Llamas and the four other recipients earned $5,000 each in financial support for the fall 2018 school term. The other winning students are Ashley Garcia from San Bernardino, California, attending the University of California, Berkeley; Kellen Burgess-Alm from Seattle attending the University of Washington; Lily Morgan from Gold Bar, Washington, attending Seattle Pacific University; and Andrew Ho from Clackamas, Oregon.“We were very impressed by the ambition and compassion of the applicants we got to know through our inaugural scholarship,” said Gary Furukawa, founder of Freestone Capital Management. “The five winners are exemplary citizens and we know they’ll have a positive impact on their communities as they pursue higher education to achieve their dreams.”In their applications, the recipients expressed outstanding community involvement, aptitude and entrepreneurial skill sets to stand apart from hundreds of highly qualified applicants, a Freestone Capital Management press release Tuesday said. Their outreach efforts include leading youth organizations, supporting people experiencing homelessness and mentoring disadvantaged students.To determine the recipients, Freestone’s scholarship selection committee evaluated applications for the strength of their personal narratives, extracurricular interests, community involvement, entrepreneurship and financial need.“This year’s scholarship recipients are already making a difference in their communities and share an ambition to improve global living, health and financial conditions,” said Erik Morgan, a senior partner at Freestone Capital Management. “With students pursuing degrees in international business, business administration, political science and public health, our scholarship uncovered an amazing group of analytical thinkers, doers and future leaders, and we look forward to seeing them succeed in their studies and beyond.”Freestone has committed to providing $100,000 in total financial support for 20 students over four years, empowering deserving students to achieve a higher education.For full details on the scholarship and to monitor for future scholarship applications, visit the Freestone Future Leaders Scholarship website, www.freestonecapital.com/freestone-future-leaders-scholarship. Herbeauty7 Most Startling Movie Moments We Didn’t Realize Were InsensitiveHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThe Most Heartwarming Moments Between Father And DaughterHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyTop 9 Predicted Haircut Trends Of 2020HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty9 Of The Best Metabolism-Boosting Foods For Weight LossHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty11 Signs Your Perfectionism Has Gotten Out Of ControlHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyShort On Time? 10-Minute Workouts Are Just What You NeedHerbeautyHerbeauty Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenacenter_img Education Pasadena Student Receives $5,000 Scholarship from Freestone Capital Management From STAFF REPORTS Published on Tuesday, June 5, 2018 | 7:09 pm Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  Community News Community News Top of the News Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday First Heatwave Expected Next Week Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,PCC – EducationVirtual Schools PasadenaDarrell Done EducationHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimeslast_img read more

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Could Fed Policy Inadvertently Disrupt the Housing Market?

first_img The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Share 1Save Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Sign up for DS News Daily Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Related Articles Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago The seeming disconnect between the economic tumult created by the COVID-19 pandemic and the record-high levels for the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the S&P 500 Index can be explained when held up against the performance of the mortgage market, according to an op-ed piece authored by Brian Chappatta, a columnist with Bloomberg.Chappatta observed that 30-year mortgage rates “slowly but surely dropped to record lows throughout the pandemic, touching 2.78% earlier this month, according to Freddie Mac data.” As a result, an increasing number of homeowners sought to refinance their mortgages, with the goal of either lowering their monthly payments or tapping into their property’s equity. Former Federal Reserve Chairwoman Janet Yellen referred to this as a “savings glut” and Chappatta noted this helps mitigate much of the financial trauma fueled by the pandemic.“With more cash in their pockets, these people have kept spending levels relatively steady while also socking money away or investing in stocks or other assets,” he said.Simultaneously, Chappatta continued, was the Federal Reserve’s efforts to bolster the economy in what he dubbed “pushing the $6.8 trillion mortgage-backed securities market to extremes.” He also warned that the Fed will create even greater problems for the economy if it steps away from this strategy.“As it stands, the Fed has bought more than $1 trillion of mortgage bonds since March, a record pace, and now holds $2 trillion of the securities on its balance sheet,” he explained. “That easily eclipses the previous high during the last economic recovery. Central bankers have pledged repeatedly to keep adding bonds each month ‘at least at the current pace,’ which is often quoted as $40 billion. But that’s actually a net figure: Total monthly purchases tend to be closer to $100 billion because borrowers’ principal repayments take out some debt already on the Fed’s balance sheet.”Chappatta highlighted the central bank’s decision on Oct. 29 of purchasing conventional 30-year securities with a 1.5% coupon, a historic low percentage. Because of this action, Chappatta theorized the Fed will not raise interest rates in the coming years – which, he argued, creates another problem.“All of this serves to squeeze mortgage-bond investors in higher-rate securities,” he stated. “Most of them bought the debt at a premium, and the constant reduction in lending rates leaves them vulnerable to prepayment risk as homeowners refinance and pay off their existing obligations at par. But it would be arguably even more painful if investors are herded into ultra-low coupon MBS, only to see rates rise.”Chappatta cited the threat of extension risk, where “fund managers left holding 1.5% or 2% MBS could be saddled with huge losses if longer-term interest rates start to increase next year as the U.S. economy rebounds and inflation starts to pick up on the back of a COVID-19 vaccine.”As for the homeowners taking advantage of ultra-low mortgage rates, Chappatta cautioned that a rapid economic recovery in 2021 will cause spikes in longer-term Treasury yields and the benchmark 30-year mortgage rate, which would disrupt the advantages that homeowners are currently enjoying – which Chappatta predicted would create “at least a hiccup in the U.S. housing market and an implosion at worst.”“If there’s a modest correction in housing prices, that shouldn’t be too disruptive for the economy as a whole,” he said. “Rather, it’s the second-order effects of higher mortgage rates that should concern investors … The refinancing boom the central bank engineered has helped countless Americans get through the pandemic. But it can’t afford to see it go bust. Most likely, the Fed won’t be able to extricate itself from buying mortgage bonds for at least the next several years, and possibly longer, or else risk toppling the entire house of cards it built.” Could Fed Policy Inadvertently Disrupt the Housing Market? Subscribe in Daily Dose, Featured, Government, News November 20, 2020 1,224 Views Home / Daily Dose / Could Fed Policy Inadvertently Disrupt the Housing Market?  Print This Post 2020-11-20 Cristin Espinosa Previous: Forbearance Volumes Change Course Next: The Week Ahead: A Breakdown of Delinquency Statistics Phil Hall is a former United Nations-based reporter for Fairchild Broadcast News, the author of nine books, the host of the award-winning SoundCloud podcast “The Online Movie Show,” co-host of the award-winning WAPJ-FM talk show “Nutmeg Chatter” and a writer with credits in The New York Times, New York Daily News, Hartford Courant, Wired, The Hill’s Congress Blog and Profit Confidential. His real estate finance writing has been published in the ABA Banking Journal, Secondary Marketing Executive, Servicing Management, MortgageOrb, Progress in Lending, National Mortgage Professional, Mortgage Professional America, Canadian Mortgage Professional, Mortgage Professional News, Mortgage Broker News and HousingWire. Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago About Author: Phil Hall Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days agolast_img read more

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Over 100 pubs closing in Donegal as VFI demand government action

first_imgNews Twitter Pinterest Twitter Over 100 pubs closing in Donegal as VFI demand government action Calls for maternity restrictions to be lifted at LUH RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Guidelines for reopening of hospitality sector published Previous articleHuge increase in Magee College applications as A Level results are publishedNext articleMother of student who died in Derry tells of A level sorrow News Highland Facebook WhatsApp Pinterestcenter_img By News Highland – August 19, 2010 448 new cases of Covid 19 reported today Three factors driving Donegal housing market – Robinson Facebook Google+ Help sought in search for missing 27 year old in Letterkenny NPHET ‘positive’ on easing restrictions – Donnelly Google+ It’s emerged that over 100 pubs in Donegal have chosen to cease trading over the past 12 months following the publication of new figures from the Revenue Commissioners.106 pubs in the county did not renew their licences over the past year, the third highest figure in the country after Dublin and Cork.Publicans say the smoking ban, reductions in drink drive limits and cheap alcohol in supermarkets have all contributed to what is becoming a terminal decline for many pubs.Martin Gibbons is VFI spokesperson in Donegal, he says there are things that could be done to help, but he’s not confident they will materialise……..[podcast]http://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/yymgibs1pm.mp3[/podcast] WhatsApplast_img read more

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[NDPS Act] Actual Drug Content Or Total Mixture Amount : Why SC Decision In ‘Hira Singh’ May Need Reconsideration?

first_imgColumns[NDPS Act] Actual Drug Content Or Total Mixture Amount : Why SC Decision In ‘Hira Singh’ May Need Reconsideration? Lakshya Gupta2 May 2020 12:33 AMShare This – xAny NDPS practitioner or their client cannot emphasise enough on the question as to whether it is the total quantity of material seized or the actual drug content by weight in the seized material which decides if the quantity involved in an offence is a small, intermediate or commercial quantity. The answer to this question is pivotal mainly because of two reasons – it decides whether…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginAny NDPS practitioner or their client cannot emphasise enough on the question as to whether it is the total quantity of material seized or the actual drug content by weight in the seized material which decides if the quantity involved in an offence is a small, intermediate or commercial quantity. The answer to this question is pivotal mainly because of two reasons – it decides whether or not the rigour of Section 37 which applies for offences involving commercial quantity will be at play while trying to argue for bail during trial and it also determines the quantum of punishment that can be administered at the conclusion of trial. This issue was recently decided in a three-judge bench decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Hira Singh & Anr.vs. Union of India & Anr. (hereinafter, ‘Hira Singh’) in which judgment was delivered on 22.04.2020. The issue was decided in a reference from a 2-judge bench vide order dated 03.07.2017 involving multiple questions and reconsideration of an earlier two-judge bench decision of the Supreme Court in the case of E. Micheal Raj vs Intelligence Officer, Narcotic Control Bureau (hereinafter, ‘E Micheal’). Under challenge was a 2009 notification issued under the NDPS Act which amended an earlier 2001 notification by adding a note (Note 4) in it. It was submitted by the petitioners that the 2009 notification was ultra vires the NDPS Act since it sought to penalize the entire weight of seized material including neutral material. They contended that since the NDPS Act only prescribed punishment on the basis of actual drug content, the notification was ultra vires the Act and hence liable to be set aside. Some background may be of assistance here. The NDPS Act was enacted in 1985 and was subsequently amended on four occasions – in 1989, in 2001, in 2014 and in 2016. Various notifications have been issued under the Act and the ones relevant for the present discussion include Notification No. S.O. 1055 (E) dated 19.10.2001 (hereinafter, ‘2001 Notification’) and Notification No. S.O. 2941 (E) dated 18.11.2009 (hereinafter, ‘2009 Notification’). While the NDPS Act as originally enacted provided for uniform punishment for most of the offences (10-20 years) irrespective of the amount of material seized, through the 2001 Amendment, a graded structure of punishment was introduced for these offences depending on the amount of material involved in its commission. Soon after the 2001 Amendment, the 2001 Notification was issued which listed 239 items along with their small and commercial quantities. It also contained 3 notes, one of which, Note 2 has been heavily relied on by Hira Singh. There are two views on what constitutes amount of material involved in commission of an offence under the Act – the total amount of material seized (hereinafter, ‘the total amount view’) or the proportion of actual drug content by weight in the seized material (hereinafter, ‘the actual drug content view’). The court in E. Micheal which was decided on 11.03.2008, took the latter view. To undo the effect of E. Micheal, a notification was passed in 2009 which added Note 4 to the 2001 Amendment. Subsequently, a Bill was introduced in 2011 which was referred to a Parliamentary Standing Committee and was eventually passed as the 2014 Amendment. The Hira Singh bench first considered the E Micheal judgment and held that E Micheal had wrongly interpreted the Statement of Objects and Reasons of the 2001 Amendment and had also failed to take note of Note 2 in the 2001 Notification while taking the actual drug content view. As per Hira Singh, a reading of the scheme and object of the NDPS Act showed that it has always provided for the total amount view since its enactment and the 2001 Amendment also didn’t change that fundamental fabric of the Act. Further, looking at the object of the NDPS Act, the Act always provided for dealing with the drugs in the manner that they are sold or consumed and hence the offence had to be seen in terms of the total amount view. Since the Act provided for the total amount view itself, even if Note 4 was not added, it would have made no difference. Since Note 4 was only clarifying what had already been provided for by the Act and subsequent amendments, it was not ultra vires and was passed as a measure of abundant caution to clarify the confusion created by the wrongly decided E Micheal case. The Court therefore unequivocally ruled in favour of the total amount view. In this post, I argue that Hira Singh does not engage properly with E Micheal and even reads it wrongly on certain vital points. The Court fails to justify its conclusion with cogent reasoning and does little to explain its reading of the Act, its Amendments and Notifications issued under the Act. The Court wrongly interprets the legislative intent despite strong evidence to show that the legislature advocated the actual drug content view. In conclusion, I submit that the decision in Hira Singh proceeds on an assumption that the 2001 Amendment provides for a two-tier punishment system which is in direct contravention of the object and text of the Amendment, and the decision is hence liable to be reviewed. E Micheal, heroin, opium derivative, Entry 56 and Entry 239 E. Micheal involved ‘heroin’ which finds mention as the 56th Entry in the list of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in the schedule to the Act and is also defined as an opium derivative as per Section 2(xvi)(d) of the Act. As per Section 2(xi) of the Act, all opium derivates are manufactured drugs. Possession of manufactured drugs is an offence under Section 8 and is punishable as per Section 21 of the Act. E. Micheal held that since heroin was an opium derivate and all opium derivates were manufactured drugs, the accused who was in possession of heroin was in contravention of section 8 which inter alia, prohibits possession of manufactured drugs, and was hence liable to be punished under Section 21 of the Act. While the total amount of material seized was around 4 kg, the amount of pure heroin was 60 gm which fell between 5gm, the ‘small quantity’ and 250gm, the ‘commercial quantity’ prescribed against heroin i.e. entry no. 56. The accused was hence found liable for punishment for possessing an intermediate quantity which was punishable for upto 10 years rigorous imprisonment and was sentenced to six years. The Court in Hira Singh holds that E. Micheal was wrong in considering heroin as an opium derivative as it was already prescribed as a separate entry at item 56. However, the Court does not explain as to why it was wrong to consider Heroin as an opium derivative when the Act clearly provides so. A reading of the Act shows that heroin is an opium derivative and a manufactured drug. Further, all manufactured drugs are narcotic drugs as per Section 2(xiv). The original schedule provided a list of psychotropic substances where heroin did not find any mention, whereas the amended schedule as can be seen in the 2001 notification, lists both psychotropic substances and narcotic drugs where heroin is mentioned at item no. 56. A reading of the Act, the original schedule and the amended schedule hence shows that heroin is an opium derivate which is a manufactured drug and a narcotic drug and possession of which is in contravention of section 8 and punishable under Section 21. The error in E. Micheal seems to be in considering Entry 239 at all. Entry 239 which reads as ‘any mixture or preparation that of with or without a neutral material, of any of the above drugs’ contains single asterix in column 5 and double asterix in column 6 which are later defined to clarify that when one or more narcotic drug or pyshotropic substance are contained in a mixture, the relevant ‘small’ quantity and ‘commercial’ quantity would be that of the drug or substance having lower of such quantity. It is hence clear that Entry 239 only applies where there is more than one narcotic drug or/and psychotropic substance with or without neutral material(s) but not when there is only one narcotic drug or psychotropic substance with neutral material(s), which was the case in E Micheal. The Court in Hira Singh holds that the relevant entry i.e. Entry 56 was not considered by E. Micheal and Entry 239 was not at all applicable in that case. While the Court in Hira Singh was correct in holding the latter, it has faltered in holding the former. E. Micheal in paragraph 9 clearly laid down that the case pertained to Entry 56 or Entry 239 and also quoted both of them. Now while the consideration of Entry 239 was not required, the Court in E Micheal however does not make any error in framing the issue it decided as is clear from paragraph 13 – that whether in a mixture of a narcotic drug or a psychotropic substance with one or more neutral substance(s), the quantity of neutral material(s) is to be considered or not. The question therefore was ultimately formed in terms of Entry 56 only which involved a particular narcotic drug and not in terms of Entry 239 which involved multiple narcotic drug(s) or/and psychotropic substance(s). Scheme of the NDPS Act It was argued by the State that a look at the definition of terms of the NDPS Act such as ‘preparation’, ‘mixture’ or ‘psychotropic substance’ show that the Act as originally enacted always considered mixture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and not just their pure form. The Court in Hira Singh seemingly places reliance on this argument of the State and on the object of the NDPS Act which needed to provide for stringent punishment to hold that as per the scheme and object of the NDPS Act, the weight of the neutral material could not be excluded for determining the amount of material involved in the offence. What however is relevant here to note is that it is no one’s case that the original Act did not identify mixture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances. Till the 2001 Amendment, there was no gradation of punishment depending on the amount of material seized and hence it was irrelevant as to what amount of the material was seized or what was the pure content of a narcotic drug or a psychotropic substance in it, as long as that drug or substance was present in it. The 2001 Amendment, inter alia, amended Sections 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22 and 23 to provide for varying punishment depending on the amount of material involved in the commission of offence. The Statement of Objects and Reasons of the 2001 Amendment Act explains the rationale behind this: “Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 provides deterrent punishment for various offences relating to illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Most of the offences invite uniform punishment of minimum ten years’ rigorous imprisonment which may extend up to twenty years. While the Act envisages severe punishments for drug traffickers, it envisages reformative approach towards addicts. In view of the general delay in trial it has been found that the addicts prefer not to invoke the provisions of the Act. The strict bail provisions under the Act add to their misery. Therefore, it is proposed to rationalise the sentence structure so as to ensure that while drug traffickers who traffic in significant quantities of drugs are punished with deterrent sentences, the addicts and those who commit less serious offences are sentenced to less severe punishment. This requires rationalisation of the sentence structure provided under the Act. It is also proposed to restrict the application of strict bail provisions to those offenders who indulge in serious offences.” (Emphasis supplied) The Court in E. Micheal relies on this Statement of Objects and Reasons to hold that since the legislature now sought to bring in a tiered sentencing regime depending on the amount of material involved in the offence, the material should only mean the actual drug content and should not include the weight of neutral material. Holding to the contrary would mean that a person possessing/consuming/transacting in a lesser amount of pure drug may be subjected to a more severe punishment if that material is mixed with neutral material as compared to someone who is possessing/consuming/transacting in a higher amount of pure drug. The Court in Hira Singh disagrees with this reasoning primarily because E. Micheal fails to take into consideration Note 2 below the Schedule given in the 2001 Notification which provided that the quantities shown against the respective drugs listed in the schedule also applied to the preparations of the drug. Hira Singh is correct in identifying that E Micheal fails to consider Note 2 since there is no discussion on this Note in the E Micheal judgment. At this stage, a close look at Note 2 is important. Let’s say there is a drug X with 50gm as small quantity and 250gm as commercial quantity. The state is telling you that it has a problem with drug X and possessing/consuming/transacting in it is not allowed. Possessing 50gm of it is bad, possessing between 50gm to 250 gm of it is worse and possessing more than 250 gm is terribly bad and you’ll be punished accordingly. Note 2 in this situation might be saying one of the two things: That since the state has a problem with X, the state will treat you in a similar manner if you possess any preparation of X and the weight of X is 50gm, between 50-250 gm or more than 250 gm.That since the state has a problem with X, the state will treat you in a similar manner if you possess any preparation of X and the weight of the preparation is 50gm, between 50-250 gm or more than 250 gm. The Court in E. Micheal seems to assume the first scenario because it has no discussion on Note 2 while it has referred to other parts of the 2001 Notification. The Court in Hira Singh holds the second scenario to be the obvious reading of the law. I submit that this reading is not borne out of the legislative intent as is clear from the circumstances surrounding the 2014 Amendment. It was argued by the intervener that the 2011 Amendment Bill sought to introduce an amendment in the definition of ‘small quantity’ and ‘commercial quantity’ so as to introduce the total weight of the seized material within the fold of small quantity and commercial quantity and not just the pure drug content. The proposed change was rejected by the 50th Report of the Standing Committee on Finance (2011-2012) which observed as follows: “…meanings denoted by the terms/ expressions ‘preparation’ and ‘otherwise’ in proposed amendments are vague and unspecific. Such ambiguity in the clause would lead to arbitrariness in the interpretation of the law and may weaken the rationalized penalty structure introduced by the 2001 Amendment to the NDPS Act. The Committee feel that if the proposed amendments intend to provide specific provisions for considering the pure drug content of a recovery to determine the consequential penalty/punishment for an offender, no word/term/clause with ambiguous meaning should be used in the provisions.” (emphasis supplied) The Parliamentary Standing Committee was clear in its Report that if the intention was to consider only pure drug content, no ambiguous words such as ‘preparation’ and ‘otherwise’ should be used and the same were duly withdrawn. The recommendation was accepted and the 2014 Amendment Act does not include these changes. This is strong evidence for legislative intent in favour of the actual dug content view over the total amount view. The Court in Hira Singh does not engage with this argument despite the same being argued and offers no explanation or discussion on the legislative intent behind the 2011 Bill or the 2014 Amendment. The two-tier punishment fallacy The Court in Hira Singh places strong reliance on the argument of the State that since the NDPS Act aims to prevent trade and consumption of illicit drugs, it is the form in which drugs are sold or consumed which is relevant for determining the amount of material involved in the offence. Since most drugs are sold in an impure form, the total weight of the impure form of the drug was relevant for determining whether the quantity involved was small quantity or commercial quantity. While advancing this argument, the State gives an example that 5gm of pure heroin can be used to sell 100gm of total material or 400 doses in the impure form and since the prescribed small quantity for heroin is 5gm, the offender may only be sentenced to a maximum of six months if the pure drug content view was taken. Such a small punishment could not have been intended by the legislature when the 2001 Amendment was introduced and offences involving small quantity were made punishable upto 6 months (now punishable upto one year since the 2014 Amendment). The Court in Hira Singh refers to the Statement of Object and Reasons of the 2001 Amendment Act and holds that the legislature has introduced a two-tiered punishment regime through it, one for small quantity and one for commercial quantity. The Court also notes that E. Micheal wrongly punished the accused for small quantity and the punishment should have been for commercial quantity. While ruling in favour of the total drug content view, the Court throughout the decision seems to be informed by the opinion that the pure content view may lead to many serious violators escaping punishment for ‘commercial’ quantity and be instead punished for ‘small quantity’, the only other alternative, thus weakening the stringent nature of the Act and defeating its deterrent purpose. Therefore, the opinion of the Court that the Act provides for a two-tier punishment has been instrumental in its final outcome. The Court has erred in holding that the NDPS Act as amended by the 2001 Amendment provides for a two-tiered punishment system. A simple reading of the 2001 Amendment shows that while two terms, ‘small quantity’ and ‘commercial quantity’ have been introduced, there is a trifurcation of the sentencing regime: one for ‘small quantity’; one for amounts greater than ‘small quantity’ but lesser than ‘commercial quantity’ (often referred to as ‘intermediate quantity’); and one for ‘commercial quantity’. The Court in E Micheal was cognizant of this trifurcation and sentenced the accused for an intermediate quantity for a period of six years. The Court in Hira Singh has wrongly noted that E Micheal held the quantity to be small quantity and punished accordingly. The Court gives example of heroin and how it is sold in adulterated form as smack which is even more dangerous than pure heroin. The court relying on this example makes a sweeping generalisation that mixtures of drugs are more harmful than the pure drug and hence the weight calculated should include the weight of the entire mixture. While no scientific data is offered to support this, even the flip side of this example is not considered. The question whether a more pure form of drug which is more potent and hence probably more harmful as a single dose is not engaged with. A closer look at the example given by the State would show that if instead of 5gm of pure heroin, even if one milligram extra of heroin was used in commission, the accused would be liable for upto ten years imprisonment as per the actual drug content view. Further, if the total amount view is taken, a person selling 4.99 gm of pure heroin in pure form may be liable for punishment for only upto one year whereas a person who sells 0.1gm of pure heroin in mixture form along with 250gm of neutral material may be liable for punishment for upto 20 years. This also possibly could not have been the legislative intent behind introducing a graded system of punishment. Borderline examples may not be ideal for evaluation of a sentencing scheme. Any offence involving intermediate quantity can be punished for upto ten years imprisonment which though not as severe a punishment as provided for commercial quantity, is far more severe that the maximum punishment of one year for small quantity in relative terms and is also a strong penalty in absolute terms. Since the magnitude of punishment determines the deterrent effect of the Act, as has been espoused by the Court in the instant matter, the decision may need to be reconsidered since a vital element of the sentencing regime has been left out from the Court’s consideration. Further, while the Court or the State do not explicitly refer to the question of bail, the rigour of Section 37 on undertrials facing trial for commission of offence involving commercial quantities also needs to be taken note of. The incorrect bifurcation of punishment regime into one for commercial quantity and one for small quantity while ignoring punishment for intermediate quantity may have been an attempt to ensure that as many undertrials as possible be subjected to the most stringent of bail provisions. In conclusion The submissions of the State seem to proceed on a good understanding of the ground realities of the drug trade and how and in what quantities drugs are transacted/consumed in and the Court has relied on such submissions. The State has been given wide powers to deem whatever quantities it thinks fit as small or commercial quantity through notifications. One of the reasons behind giving the power to issue notifications to provide small and commercial quantities of particular narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances to the Executive was to ensure that such notifications can be issued promptly as per changing realities of the drug trade and to keep it out of the Legislative fold which can be more time consuming. This reason for choosing Notification route over the Amendment route is sufficiently elaborated in the Standing Committee Report referred to earlier. If the State believes that 5gm for heroin is too large a ‘small quantity’ for catching drug traffickers, it can reduce it through a notification. This shows that while the State does have the power to deal more effectively with the drug trade problem even in the pure drug content paradigm which seems to be the paradigm purported by the legislature, the discomfort in doing that arises because of the repercussions on the cases already decided or pending trial. The Court in Hira Singh decides an issue where the need to deal with the drug problem in the strictest way possible is used a justification for the decision. A closer look at the decision reveals that while taking note of this justification, the Court does not sufficiently engage with all aspects of the sentencing structure under the NDPS Act and the legislative intent behind it. It also does not give cogent reasoning on certain vital points of its disagreement with the case of E. Micheal which it declares as per incuriam. Since the judgment ignores the trifurcation of the sentencing regime and relies on a two-tier punishment system to base its conclusion, there might be strong grounds for reviewing the judgment as it seems to be an error apparent on the face of record. The actual content/total content debate under the NDPS Act may be far from settled as the judgment in Hira Singh may need reconsideration.(The author is a lawyer practising in New Delhi and can be reached at [email protected] Views are personal)   Next Storylast_img read more

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